Diabetes Mellitus | Types | Causes | Signs and Symptoms 2023

Diabetes Mellitus Today our topic is diabetes. This is such a disease. Which is common to someone in every other house. So diabetes means an increase in sugar level. There are two types of diabetes. One is diabetes and the other is diabetes, which is diabetes, it is a kind of group in which your patient gets hyperglycemia, that is, hyper means high, which means if our blood is fine then the level becomes high. Due to what is happening, either your insulin secretion has reduced or insulin is being secreted

But it is not able to work, it is or it can be both reasons, more about this in detail. We forward. Its normal value is our blood sugar. If we check its normal value during fasting, what is its normal value? It is seventy to a hundred. And after eating your food, which we also call PP, post-prandial is less than one hundred and forty.Eighty to one hundred and forty. And if yours is random, it means you can check it anytime, whether you have eaten food or not.

So what is its normal value? Eighty to one hundred and thirty. If your blood sugar level increases from the normal value then what will we call it? Hyperglycemia and if its level falls below the normal value. So what will we call it? Hypoglycemia. if your blood sugar level has increased from normal and has increased so much that it gets filtered and is also coming in your urine. So what do we call such a condition? Glycose urea. Remember urea. Means glucose and urea means urine.

What Is Diabetes Mellitus

So that means glucose coming into your urine. our kidney is very important to maintain our blood glucose level. The glomerulus present in our kidneys keeps filtering the sugar properly. Control your glucose level so that glucose does not enter your urine. But for how long will it filter? One Eighty MG till DL. If your blood sugar level is up to one-eighty. So it will filter you. And will send it back in blood. But if it exceeds one hundred and eighty. So what will he do?

It will not be able to filter it further and will pass it out in your urine. And what will happen because of this is that you will get the condition Glycose urea. What do we call this thing? Renal triple shock of glucose. What is called renal thromboembolism? That his capacity is as much as yours. It has a capacity of up to one hundred and eighty. To filter. You will remember this. let us know about the pancreas because the pancreas is most important to maintain our glucose level. This is our pancreas.

The pancreatic cells in the pancreas are called islets of Langerhans. Your two types of cells are found in them. The first is our alpha sales and the second is our beta sales. the alpha cells release your glucagon. What will he do? What will your alpha cells do whenever the sugar level in the body goes down? Which will create glucose and increase the level of sugar in your blood or inside your body. Now what do the beta cells do? Release insulin. Who produces insulin in our body?

Sings Of Diabetes

These are beta cells that are found in the pancreas. So whenever the sugar level in our body increases. then what will happen? These beta cells will start producing insulin. Now let us see the types of diabetes diabetes Mellitus which we have it is basically of two types the first is our type one diabetes and the second is our type two diabetes now we see type one diabetes so the type one diabetes is that We have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

IDDM is insulin-dependent because it is dependent on insulin. Well, what happens in this is that our body has used its ability to make insulin. I just told you that your pancreas is responsible for that. Your beta cells make insulin. Now those beta cells are not able to make your insulin. Either they are making too much or less insulin. This happens to us and because of that the patient will develop diabetes. So which diabetes will it be? Type one diabetes.

Sings Of Diabetes
Sings Of Diabetes

This is a kind of autoimmune condition in which your pancreas or pancreas cells are producing less or no insulin. About ten percent of individuals have type one diabetes. Now comes our type two diabetes, type two diabetes is noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Noninsulin-dependent means that the pancreas is working fine. But because of your mistake i.e. you are taking too much of something in your diet or you are consuming too much sugar due to which D does not have the capability.

Sugar Level Increase In Diabetes

This much or your body is not secreting that much insulin. Or the amount of insulin it is secreting. The amount of sugar you are taking from outside is not able to be equivalent to balancing it. So which one has it become? Non-insulin-dependent. It has no role in insulin. We also call this insulin-resistant diabetes. In this our body produces insulin. Pankarias is doing great. Pankarias’ beta cells are producing a lot of insulin. But our body is not able to utilize what it has properly.

This happens in eighty to ninety percent of people. Now comes the third type of diabetes which we call gastric diabetes. Gestational, gestational We call our gestational period i.e. pregnancy period a gestational period., what will happen during the twenty-four weeks of our pregnancy period? There are chances of a woman getting diabetes during pregnancy. So what is diabetes called because of this? Is Gestational Diabetes Whatever this disease is, it can affect both.

To the mother as well as the baby. Why does this happen? What happens basically? The placenta produces some hormones that do not allow the insulin to function. What could be the risk factors due to this? Your fetus may be larger than normal. Women who are pregnant have a chance of getting type 2 diabetes. Who will be diabetic at that time, which one will it be? Type two one. Because type two will be yours. Because insulin is not able to do its job.

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

And in which insulin is not able to work properly. Which one will be yours? Type two and or your female may have had a previous history of gastric diabetes in her previous pregnancy, all these may be related to her. Now let us see the source of blood glucose, where does blood glucose, the sugar in our body, actually come from? First of all, it is very common that whatever we eat. Whatever food we are eating. Your dietary source contains the sugar molecule present in it.

What will happen to you next? Gluco-neogenesis. Glucose neo. From the word Neo, you will remember that carbohydrate is a non-non-carbohydrate source of glucose. But no means your glucose is made from noncarbohydrates such as substances or things like protein, and fatty acids, your glucose is also made from the conversion of all these things. We call that gluconeogenesis. So your second source will be this and your third source is your gluconeogenesis.

Oh sorry Glyco, Gino, yours will be converted into glucose, which is glucose in whatever we eat. Now our body absorbs everything and if we don’t use it immediately then what our body will do is store it. Will convert glucose into K form. And that’s yours again when our body needs it. So it breaks down into glucose. So what is this called? Lyses means breaking of lice and what will become of you when it breaks? Glucose will be formed.

Diabetes Diet /Diabetes Mellitus

Now let us see which hormones are included in our body to bind glucose. So the first one is our insulin which whenever the sugar level in our body is high then our body will release insulin to reduce it. That means our pancreas will release. Along with this, there are some hormones. Like glucose, pine, and thyroxine, glucocorticoids. All these are hormones. These work to increase your blood sugar level. There are also hormones which are responsible for increasing the blood sugar level.

Like your growth hormone, cortisol, progesterone, and insulin, basically, when will it come out? When will it be released? When at the time of gastric period. Now let us see the signs and symptoms of diabetes. The first sign is polydipsia. What is Polydipsia? The feeling of extreme thirst. That means the patient feels very thirsty in this case. His thirst is not quenched. Secondly, the polyuria patient will have too much urine, there will be too much union,

The patient may have Polyphia, the patient will eat a lot of food, or he will eat a lot of food, or he will have the desire to eat a lot of food. Weight loss Could be the patient’s. The patient may suffer. What happens to the patient is that you feel tired or the patient will feel tired. There is no such energy at all. He will feel like this inside him, he will get tired quickly. All these things are its signs and symptoms. Now let us see some of its complications.

Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus

Our hypoglycemia is one of the complications. Our second complication is diabetic ketoacidosis, this is very important in hypoglycemia we have already seen that the level of glucose in our blood has reduced. Now what will happen in diabetic ketoacidosis? When your insulin decreases, your liver will start producing more of your ketone bodies i.e. your beta hydroxybut acidic acid. Due to this ketone bodies will increase in the patient’s blood.

The third complication is yours which is very important. That’s our hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome HH NKS. We know this by another name. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. We also call this. Let us know these three complications in a little more detail. To remember. You will see a chart. Hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and HHNKS. In these cases. So the person who is taking your insulin will be at risk.

In this, any person who is taking your insulin will be at risk because of what will happen to the patient, the patient has got diabetes but when the patient becomes diabetic then he will take medicines and insulin. Is it okay or will it have to be injected? Now what happens many times is that when an insulin patient takes the medicine, what happens is that due to insulin, your blood sugar goes down suddenly, and then the patient may also get hypo.

Role Of Pancreas In Diabetes Mellitus

So we force him, then we have to bring him back on glucose, we are fine and what is the second point in this, the individual with rapidly fluctuating blood glucose level whose sugar level keeps going up and down very frequently, the same thing we talk about diabetic ketoacidosis. If you do, people who have type one diabetes have more chances of having these things, and people who have never got their diabetes checked before, may times they suddenly come to know

That they have diabetic ketoacidosis and thirdly. HHMKS is a very life-straightening condition in which your sugar level becomes very high. Who will this happen to you? Who can this happen to? People who are adults. Type 2 diabetic or a pancreas patient. Patients who have pancreas problems. They may have this problem. Now if we talk about lab values in hypoglycemia. So the sugar level in this is less than thirty in children.

What does your money less than fifty or sixty go to? In adults. Because of insulin. Because the body has taken insulin immediately. And because of taking insulin, the sugar went down suddenly. Secondly, if we look at diabetic ketoacidosis, if the sugar level goes above 250 then the patient has this condition. What will happen in this, is ketone bodies in your plasma, which is beta-hydroxybutyric acid, your keto is acido acid on acid on acidity. All these things increase in your blood.

Blood Pressure Increase In Diabetes

Our HH NKS, what is there in it, is that your sugar level is very high, as I told you, it is very high, it is a life-setting condition, it has six levels of sugar in it. Reaches above a hundred. At the same time, the blood urea nitrogen of the patient also becomes very high. So these were our complications, let us see some of its consequences further. So the patient may have some problem in the retina of the eyes. Neuropathy may occur, and there may be problems with neurons.

There may be a problem with BP. There may be chances of stroke. There may be chances of getting heart disease. There may be liver problems. Gastroparesis may occur. That means the muscles of your stomach. They can move abnormally. You may have nephropathy, there may be some disease in your kidneys, and There may be chances of your patient getting an infection due to your sugar or due to a decrease in cog

Basically, what will happen to you in case of a decrease in cognition? The patient has difficulty remembering, and the patient starts forgetting things, all these things are seen in this, let us see further the lab diagnosis. the first thing that comes in the lab is our blood sugar and doctors also write it as FBS. Blood sugar, blood, blood sugar, all three are the same thing, this is a very common test, and the BSP which I told you is between one and a half to two hours after eating food.

Insulin Control Sugar Level

I am fine, the doctors prescribed it once, and it is fine, doctors also get these tests done and the third one is blood sugar or RBS sugar, when will this test be done, anytime, GTT, this test is also to check your sugar level. Is for. We call this glucose tolerance test and there is another test called glucose challenge test. Doctors also get these tests done. At the same time, HBA One C is also a sugar test. To know you, what will HBA One do?

We get the sugar level checked for three months. We get to know the sugar level of the last three months, what was inside the blood? Microalbumin urea is also a test that we get done. There are also some co-related tests like our fructosamine and lipid profile. The doctor also gets all these tests done together because these tests also help in diagnosing diabetes. Makes a difference in tests. Just ahead we see some monitoring devices. Our freestyle library is a device for your diabetes.

Because people used to bleed a lot during fingerprinting and it caused pain. A new device came to remove all of them. Freestyle library. What is there in it is a sensor. As I show you in the image. The kind that the patient is holding in his hand. There is a sensor. That sensor can be placed up to the patient and Have to eat. It goes five meters deep into your skin. And the patient can move around comfortably after wearing it.

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And the sensor that you have keeps taking readings every fifteen minutes. And we should replace it every fourteen days. So many people use this to avoid the tricking of your PAN. Now let us see its treatment, its treatment is proper diet, regular exercise, regular checkups, and BGR thirty-four.BGR thirty-four is a drug that has been made by CSIR. What does it do? That is basically what insulin is, before insulin there is a condition, there is a face, proinsulin.

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