HIV Aids topic HIV AIDS, first of all, let’s talk about HIV, what is HIV, it is a kind of retrovirus, what is it, what is kind of retrovirus, now this is what HIV is a virus, and the full form is Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Now what does this virus do? This virus damages or weakens the immune system of our body, So the HI virus is a kind of retrovirus, what it does is damage or weaken the immune system of our body. Next one thing comes, how is this HI virus transmitted, it is transmitted from person to person,
HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. Now apart from this, there are other ways through which this virus can be transmitted. Like coming in contact with the blood of an infected person. This means that if a person has an HIV infection. And if his blood comes in contact with any normal person through sharing needles, syringes, etc., or blood transfusion. So HI can happen in this way also. Apart from this, this virus can also be transferred from mother to child.
How can this happen? During pregnancy childbirth and through brace feeding. So these are some routes or ways through which HIV is transmitted from one person to another. Like is transmitted sexually. It is transmitted by coming in contact with infected blood and can also be transmitted from mother to child, sometimes during pregnancy, labor, and through breastfeeding. Now let us talk about AIDS. What is AIDS? So the full form of AIDS is. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Always remember that the condition of AIDS does not necessarily exist in every HIV patient. What it means to say is that all the people who are infected with HIV, or AIDS don’t need to be found in all, AIDS, which happens, is the late stage of HIV. What it means to say is that AIDS occurs in patients with HIV. It is seen after many years now when is it seen so let me tell you what HIV does after it comes to us CD for cells which are immune cells
CD for cells in these cells It works to kill, generally the count of CDs for sales in our body is within five hundred to sixteen hundred per cubic mm. but if the count of these CDs for sales goes below two hundred per cubic mm. Then the condition of AIDS develops. As I told you earlier not all people who have HIV have AIDS, but AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection, that is, it develops after many years and when will it develop, when is the count of CD4 cells? If it becomes less than two hundred,
Then AIDS will develop in a person with HIV. The matter of its introduction is done. Next, let us talk about its causes. So HIV was transferred through chimpanzees. Chimpanzees who were from Africa. Has HIV come from Africa and through whom? Through the African chimpanzees. Scientists believe that a virus called immune deficiency virus was found in chimpanzees. This virus has come to humans. How did you come? When people of Africa ate meat.
So where did this immune deficiency virus come from? What happened inside humans then? After this virus entered the human population, this virus mutated. What happened? Mutated and converted into HIV. So where did this virus come from? It has come from Africa, people from Africa ate the meat of chimpanzees, and it got transferred from them, and after the transfer it got mutated, which is in HIV. And when did this happen? Around 1920.
Next one thing comes to mind when was HIV first found in the blood sample of a human being? In nineteen fifty-nine. That is, for the first time in 1969, HIV was found in one’s blood. So this is how the virus has been transferred from animals to the human population. Next call let’s talk about HIV transmission because in what ways can HIV be transmitted? So HIV can be transferred through some body fluids. What can happen through blood? Semen can be transferred through vaginal,
Causes Of HIV Aids
Rectal flutes and breast milk. Now the next thing comes that in person-to-personal cases, HIV can be transferred from one person to another, it can be transferred from one person to another through vaginal and oral sex, the next one is sharing needles and syringes, the third one is Sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing sharing tattoo equipment which is used for tattoos, etc. If suppose a person who had HIV got his tattoo done and it was not done properly
If another person gets tattooed with the same equipment then what happens? When a tattoo is made, the blood in the skin comes out and if it comes in contact with the skin, then the HIV can also be transferred from one person to another. Next one condition may come during labor and may also be transferred from mother to child, how will it happen? Delivery time. And the next one is during breastfeeding. The HIV can also be transferred from mother to child
Through breastfeeding or breastfeeding. Next one thing comes through which ways HIV is not transferred? So here there is no transfer through skin-to-skin contact, if there is no injury etc., and if there is normal skin-to-skin contact then there will be no transfer. Hugging, shaking hands, or even shaking hands with a person with HIV does not result in transmission. HIV does not spread even through air and water. Apart from this, the HIV does not spread even by sharing drinks
With an HIV patient. Apart from this, the HIV does not spread through any other means. So these are some things through which the virus cannot spread. The HIV spreads through the means that I told you about above. Next, let us talk about what is the mechanism of its pathophysiology here. And how does this virus grow? What are the positive factors through which this virus enters a person’s body? What happens after entering? This HIV gets attached to the CD 4 cells,
Symptoms Of HIV Aids
That is, it sticks to them. Next, what happens is that when this HIV sticks to the CD 4 cells or enters them, then this virus does or uses an enzyme, the name of which is rivers enzyme. What does this enzyme do? It works to make DNA from RANA.so what is HIV? It is an RNA virus. So what is this HIV doing now? Encoding this enzyme. It is asking you to convert our RNA into DNA. So what will this enzyme do? It will convert or transcribe the HIV into these viruses.
Now as soon as the HIV viruses are converted into these viruses, where will this virus go? It will enter into the DNA of CD4 sales and as soon as it enters into this DNA of CD4 sales, it will start replicating through the genetic material of this CD4 sales. Do you understand? What did the reverse transcript enzyme do? The RNA of the HIV is converted into DNA. Then where did this HIV DNA enter? In the genetic material or DNA of CD for Sales and as soon as it entered inside, it started replicating.
Growth has started. So what will happen now? That new virus growth will continue to form, that is, the virus will continue to replicate, and new viruses will continue to be formed. CDs for sales in which it is present will start getting distributed and the count of CDs for sales will reduce. This is how HIV infection develops in any person. I hope you have understood this. Next, let us talk about its symptoms. Here, the symptoms of HIV AIDS are seen in some phases or stages.
So the first phase in this is primary infection or acute HIV phase. When is this face visible or when does it start? Two to four weeks after the HIV is inserted into the body. Now what symptoms are seen in this? So will common symptoms be seen in this? There will be fever-like, the person will complain of headache, there will be muscle ache, that is, there will be a pain in the muscles. Remains, spots, etc. will form on the skin. It means there will be a sore throat.
HIV Spread One Person To Another
Painful mouth sores can be seen i.e. blisters forming inside or outside the mouth. Diarrheal conditions will be seen here. Weight loss will be seen. Why will we see weight loss? Because what does the HI virus do? Whatever hormones are responsible for metabolism. This HIV suppresses the hormones that are responsible for metabolism. What does it do? Reduces it and if these are suppressed then what happens is that the person does not feel hungry
And if he does not feel hungry then there will be weight loss. Apart from this, phlegm can also be seen in the person, cough, etc., and night sweats can also happen. That is, sweating at night. Next one, after this, comes the second phase, Clinical Symptomatic HIV infection. Now what symptoms will be seen in this, there will be a fever, and the person will remain very tired because he is not getting nutrition, he is not feeling hungry, and he is not eating. Apart from this, oral thrush will be seen which is caused by candidiasis,
In which the person will get blisters etc. in the mouth or on the tongue. Next and apart from this, ringworm can also be seen. What happens in this is that the abdominal area of the person is the part below the armpit, where blisters form now all these symptoms that I am telling you are are happening because what HIV is doing is reducing the immunity and as soon as the immunity reduces, then whatever micro organized life fungus which is kidney asis,
It normally lives in the mouth but if the immunity is reduced then What will it do? Kidneysis will start causing harm here. now apart from this, pneumonia can also happen. Diarrhea will be seen here due to low immunity. Why will we see diarrhea This is the intestinal flora, the bacteria present in it, what will happen to them, they will start overgrowing, that is, they will start producing more, and they will start taking more action,
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Why would they because the immunity here is low and as soon as they overgrow, they will The person will complain of diarrhea. Next, There will be weight loss. As I told you, what does the HI virus do to the hormones involved in metabolism? It reduces their level, due to which there is a complaint of weight loss. If we talk about complications after symptoms, then many complications start arising in a patient with HIV because his immunity is very suppressed and he is not able to fight the disease.
Infections can be seen here. The patient has pneumonia, and candidiasis, which is also called oral thrush and may also be TB. Toxo plasmosis can also occur, which is a parasite infection. Apart from this, cancer can also be seen. Lymphoma, which occurs in patients with HI, is a cancer of the lymphatic system. Apart from this, conditions can also develop. In this condition, nodules form in the skin. Ok? Apart from this, some other problems can also be seen.
Like washing iron means weight loss. Neurological complications may also be seen in the future. Like confusion, forgetfulness, and depression. Why are these conditions developing now? Why are neurological complications developing? Because HIV affects the nervous system of the person, it damages the neurons due to which symptoms like confusion, and memory loss are seen in the person. Apart from this, liver disease can also occur. Due to hepatitis C infection or viral hepatitis.
So these are some of the complications that develop. After getting HIV AIDS. Next, let’s talk about its diagnosis. So here we will collect history, past, medical, and family history, we will do a physical examination of the patient to see what science is appearing next, the test that comes here is that of HI and that is also there. The allergy test is also done, and it is discussed later to increase it, but today what is done is that only the Aller test is done, a Western blood test is less, so why is the test done?
Treatment Of HIV Aids
This is done so that the test is done to detect the HIV antigen or the antibodies against it that are present in the blood. Next here comes the diagnosis of viral load test. Now what is viral load? So let me tell you this also. Which is the HIV. There are copies of it. The meaning of Copies is said like a hard copy. If it becomes ten copies, if it becomes fifteen then the virus present in the blood of a person is called HI virus, its copies remain present, and how to measure it. So, it is measured on the copies by ml of blood.
How to measure copies per milliliter of blood? How many copies are there per ml of blood? How many are there in fifty to one million? Fifty, fifty to one million copies can remain present. One million means one million. So the more copies present in one ml of blood, the higher the viral load, and the higher the chances of infection. And the fewer copies there are, the less the chances of infection. If the viral load of HIV is below fifty, then it is called undetectable.
Undetectable means that it is in very small quantity. what is the viral load of the HI virus? From fifty to one million. Next one here you can also count CD4T sales which I told you how much is normal? It ranges from five hundred to sixteen hundred cubic mm. And if it falls below two hundred, what do we call it? AIDS. If we talk about its management, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. But HIV infection can be prevented from spreading, its infectivity can be reduced, and for
This person is given drugs of different types which are called anti-HIV drugs in which the first class of drugs comes non nucleoside rivers transcriptase. Now what do these drugs do? These drugs directly block the reverse transcription enzyme. As I told you in the beginning, what does this enzyme do? Works to convert HIV RNA into DNA. So if this enzyme is blocked then HIV RNA will not be converted into DNA and it will not be replicated. The next class comes after this nucleoside reverses, transcripts.
HIV Aids Cure
Now what do these drugs do? These are nucleosides. What are the building blocks of HIV? What are the building blocks of HIV? These drugs block these building blocks due to which the virus cannot replicate. it has two drugs and zero beautiful. The next one contains drugs, Protes any beater, Protes any beaters, which are drugs, that work to block the Protes enzyme. Now what does it do? This enzyme works to increase the replication of HIV and increase its infectivity,
So what do these drugs do? It blocks me due to which the virus cannot be replicated. and the last class of drugs comes in this integrated inhibitor. What does an integrate inhibitor do? It works to block the integrated enzyme and this enzyme does this enzyme. It works to make HIV DNA enter into the DNA of CD 4 cells. What does it do? It works to make HIV DNA enter the DNA of CD 4 cells. These drugs block this enzyme due to which this DNA does not enter into it.
So these are four types of classes of drugs that are helpful in HIV. I hope you have understood. Next one Now let us talk about its nursing management, what are the diagnoses made here? The first diagnosis is the risk of infection related to immunodeficiency, if immunity is low, or weak then there will be chances of infection. Second, there will be a condition of diarrhea here. The third diagnosis will be made. Activity, intolerance related to weakness, and poor nutrition. If the person will not eat food.
Will remain hungry, will be overweight, and will not be able to do any activity fourth diagnosis will be made here ineffective airway clearance queue airway will not remain clear due to increased bronchial secretions next diagnosis will be made here imbalance nutrition less than body requirement so these are some diagnoses which HIV is formed inside the virus or HIV infection. Now what interventions or nursing care can be given for it,
Prevention Of HIV Aids
So the first point that comes in this is that whatever caregiver or nursing staff is there, they have to keep monitoring the science of infection so that if any signs of infection appear then it has to be monitored and the result of the lab test has also been received. If the lab test has been done then its result also has to be checked for change. Sorry. Next one Here, whatever prescribed medications are to be given to the patient, which has been prescribed by the doctor, and when is it to be given? On time.
Whatever has to be given. Next, will there be any intervention in this, if the patient has a direct condition, then the person will pass out stool due to diarrhea, the nurse has to keep checking its frequency and consistency. Next one Here, give the patient cuffing and deep breathing exercises. That is to say, what will happen from this is that all the evils in the person can be taken out and there will be no more of them. Next, whatever planning has to be done by the patient here.
What to plan? Have to help the patient. In making his routine. Which routine? To create a routine for his activities. So that he can get proper rest. Next one can prescribe NS AIDS and Opioid AIDS to the patient here. Why would you do it? To reduce inflammation and pain. Next, the patient has to be given such food which he can easily swallow and can easily digest. Next, here the patient should not be given rough spicy food, he should not be given only steak,
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If given such food then he will not be able to digest it. Next, what to do now is that when the patient is discharged, if the patient’s condition has become a little stable and he is getting discharged then what to do is the nurse has to tell the patient and family members what precautions have to be taken. How to maintain safety and how you can stop its transmission. And lastly, advice has to be given to the patient. For follow-up care, you have to come back from time to time for checkups.