Pneumonia. Pneumonia pneumonia is a respiratory disease condition respiratory condition so particularly lung pneumonia definition of pneumonia is an infection. So infection body pneumonia lungs may microbes and microbes bed virus commonly pneumonia fungi or parasite less commonly pneumonia so microorganism lungs may enter infection so what will be its response? So the infection and inflammation organism has entered our lungs. Microorganism has entered the lungs.
After that, what will it do to the airways in the lungs? It will irritate and cause swelling which is called inflammation. So pneumonia is an infection that inflames. So where specifically does this inflammation occur in the lungs? In air sets. So air sets in and inflammation occurs in one and both lungs. Infection or inflammation can occur either in one lung or in both lungs. So how does this happen? Our airway is divided into right primary bronchi and left primary bronchi.
So because there are three in the right lung and two in the left lung. So right primary then after three divides, it gets further divided into segmental bronchi which go into each segment. The segmental bronchi become more narrow in which the bronchioles have what is called alveoli at the terminals of the end bronchioles. So what are these alveoli? It is called air sex, so this air sex or alveolar gas exchange takes place here. So on this side of the left lung,
Smaller airways are connected with these bronchioles. So this is air sex or it is always air-filled with bacteria viruses fungi that enter irritate and inflammation swelling July suppose so what is in this albo line is always filled with air right? The air film remains and the Balvenie goes into the gas exchange blood capillaries so blood capillaries now ah blood capillaries CO two and goes out of our airways through the nose CO two Now the oxygen that has come is from the
Balvenie It goes through the capillaries, so this gas exchange takes place so that the oxygen which is in our blood will move in the blood so that it can be given to the tissues, and the carbon dioxide gets exhaled through our nose and goes out. So what is the purpose of air sex? To exchange gas. But what happens? These air sacs become inflamed. This causes infection in the airways, swelling, and irritation. What causes it? Witch feels like fluid and pus.
What happens in these alvelines in air sex? Fluid is felt or the pus is felt here. So, what will happen between these normal airways? There is an accumulation of pus or accumulation of fluid so it can infect one lung or even infect both lungs this is the normal alkaline which is always filled with air due to which gas exchange takes place but here If pus and fluid accumulate, suppose what is this pus and fluid, then the CO2 that is going out will not be able to go,
The CO2 will get trapped here and the oxygen that was coming in will also not be able to go, that too here. But it got trapped because due to the fluid here, there is an alternation in the gas exchange, gas exchange is not happening, so what will happen due to this, breathing will be difficult. What will happen if breathing becomes so difficult? What is this condition in which air sex has become influenced, there has been inflammation in air sex and there has been fluid and pus feeling,
What is the reason for that? So what is the definition of pneumonia and what is the cause of infection? Due to the entry of micro organism that inflames air sex in one of both loves lungs particularly infect air sex. Microorganisms infect air sex because microorganisms enter narrow airways. microorganism inflammation flu accumulation pneumonia pneumonia can also happen depending on the condition of the person and some factors.
Causes Of Pneumonia
Although is treatable its treatment becomes difficult when the person is immuno-compromised. Immuno-compromised means That a person’s immunity is weak. When the person’s immunity is weak, then which person will it be? Either it will be a person above the age of sixty-five, it will be a person of old age or an infant below two years of age, or children whose immunity is still an infant. What will be the immunity of the person, it will not develop well, that too,
The immunity of the person is weak, if he is an old age person, his immunity is also weak or any other condition like cancer or HIV, the immunity of the person is also weak, hence he is an immunocompromised person. What happens in the condition are the microorganisms that trap the person in a way, they get trapped in the airways and make their home there. When a person is immunocompromised, this condition becomes more serious.
The treatment given in caste cases becomes difficult. So the microorganisms that cause pneumonia can be present anywhere. These can be present in our surroundings, like if I talk about the community where we are living, in our house, or society, if we have this infection. If it happens then what will we call it Community Acquired If we go to the hospital for some treatment, we have pneumonia there so that is hospital-acquired pneumonia so we will discuss these types further.
So now what happened in pneumonia? There is a feeling of pus in the alveline, flu, difficulty in breathing person will have breathing difficulty, he will have chest pain while breathing plus because there is a of ah fluid here, the person will have a cough, with a lot of cough, it is thick. There may also be a cough, which will happen, there may be pus in it or it may be thick, so these difficulties come after we will discuss this in detail further.
Symptoms Of Pneumonia
Now types of pneumonia so types of pneumonia come first in clinical classification. So the clinical classification is based on which area of the lungs and which part of the lungs has been infected and what is its appearance. So first comes people and pneumonia. From the name, it is clear that the lungs of a single person will be affected. So right lung has three lobes. The left lung has two lobes. So any person can be affected by any lung. More than one person will not be affected.
Any part of a single person can be affected or the whole of a single person can also be infected. so what happens in lobby pneumonia all or the last segment of the pulmonary lobe is involved. So the right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes. So suppose the middle lobe of the right lung is infected. so, in the middle loop particular area suppose this will only lead to pneumonia so either fluid accumulation or full ah inflammation. There will be an accumulation of pus or fluid.
So people with particular lobe infected will not be affected. The second is bronchopneumonia. So what is bronchopneumonia? What will happen in Broncon pneumonia? These are terminal bronchioles, and alveoli are attached to the terminal bronchioles. So the infection starts from the terminal bronchioles. Infection started. The infection so terminal bronchioles start broncho and scattered accumulation fluid in air sex
So bronchionia can infect even a full lung. So what is bronchopneumonia begins in terminal bronchioles and is scattered in airways throughout the lung. So throughout the lung, it can get infected, it can happen in one lung or the other, and it can happen in both lungs, that is broncho. Next is pneumonia. So who does intestinal affect? To in pneumonia. So, microorganisms in effect are now types of pneumonia.
So, important types mention first community-acquired pneumonia or cap. So, names community. So, community people acquire pneumonia in community homes places, and workplaces. So, community-acquired a, except in a hospital or healthcare setting, if a person gets pneumonia, that pneumonia-causing micro organism is affecting a person so is cap community-acquired pneumonia so community-acquired mostly in the winter season.
It happens because the influenza virus is very rapid in the winter season and the influenza virus causes common cold pneumonia so that is the first type cap. The second hospital is hospital-acquired pneumonia or HAP. Hap. Hospitals require pneumonia person hospital may admit so a person hospital may admit or condition illness pneumonia person admit hospital admit pneumonia If the microorganism has affected the person then it will be called hospital-acquired pneumonia.
That is during a hospital stay If a person gets that is HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia hospital-acquired pneumonia is more serious than other types why one person is already admitted due to some illness his immunity is not so strong he has pneumonia The second thing that has happened is that the microorganisms in the hospital are antibiotic particular antibiotics so antibiotic resistant microorganism person
Already have an immunity condition hospital-acquired further subtype which is ventilator-associated pneumonia or vap is very important for ventilator breathing difficulty breathing ventilator mechanical ventilator support in ten difficulty breathing So at that time when a person is on ventilation, if he has got pneumonia, how can this pneumonia happen? These microorganisms can be present on whatever ventilation instruments or machines they are, so we will call it that.
Condition Of Pneumonia Patient
Ventilator Pneumonia is also very common because the person is already very weak the third is Health Care Associated and HKP Health Care Associated is different from the Hap Association because in Hospital Acquired the person is admitted but in Health Care the person is admitted. It does not happen that one just goes to a normal healthcare facility. Suppose, in OPD, we take an outpatient setting or in a nursing home,
We went to take medicine, sitting last year aspiration. So aspiration food drink substance food pipe aspiration. So our food drink vomit saliva windpipe enter soap accumulation fluid accumulation substance aspiratio. Now organism that causes so which such cause now in duration period microorganism entry or symptoms show period microorganism cause so bacteria This is the most common microorganism that causes pneumonia
So first of all which are the bacterial microorganisms? Are? So I have mentioned only a common microorganism here which is important for your pose for is step to focus this is the most common bacteria that causes course step to focus hence its name also has so if any scientific name ah if we write so in handwritten, if we have written any scientific name of any species then it is very important to underline it
So if we type it then we will write in italics if it is handwritten then underline next Haemophilus influenzae and then microplasma pneumonia. These are more common in bacteria than viruses; among viruses, rhinoviruses, coronavirus, influenza, and RSV are sensitive viruses. So RSV infants are one year common than less common fungi. So fungi or parasites mostly affect those with weak immunity.
Pneumonia In Children
So pneumonia fungi sys zero vasi then asparagus or candida others then parasites toxoplasma gondi and sermorelin and others so microorganisms a cause now what are the risk factors so important person’s immune system immunocompromised so first factor age so age older age that is or older immunity weak infection so easily immunity weak microorganism weak person target so or older chances
And less than two years immunity is well developed so first age next is smoking then chronic lung disease respiratory disease chronic COPD so COPD chronic obstructive disease What is it? If the person is suffering from this for a long term then the microorganism that causes can attack this person since he is suffering from a chronic long-term disease. Because COPD makes the person vulnerable to the microorganism, it makes the person so debuting and weak
If the microorganism can easily cause pneumonia, then it is a chronic illness. If the patient has an illness for a long time, such as a hard disease. Diabetes also makes the person debilitated and weak. Pneumonia’s weak immune system condition increases and during pregnancy, the immune system of a strong baby’s mother’s weak chances increase difficulty swells. It was told that what happens in S.
Pneumonia? Instead of the food going into the food pipe or any substance that should have gone into the food pipe, it goes into the windpipe, so when do these difficulties occur when our gap reflex gets disturbed? So when can this gap reflex get disturbed when there is any impairment in our brain or any neurological impairment when can it happen like in a stroke we can aspirate? There is any neurological impairment such as if the person is more likely
To have taken such a chance due to which his gang reflex is getting disturbed and whatever the particle, there are all chances of his food drink, vomit or saliva respiratory so the person is supposed to be sedative. The drug has impaired the sedated consciousness, it is less conscious. So, in that condition also the chances of increase. That is fund aspiration pneumonia. Then next year recent respiratory infection. Recently respiratory infection ah common cold influenza virus infection
So condition severe pneumonia then hospitalization, hospitalization, hospital-acquired pneumonia patients hospital may admit intensive care ventilator support chances increase physiology process due to ideological factors ideological factor any cause If micro organisms entered our respiratory track due to activation of immune response. Microorganisms’ respiratory tract is the immune response to active infection
Irritation mucus production increases and respiratory So what will happen? Cough is the cause. Then what happens after that is that when there is entry of micronism in the respiratory tract then that further microorganism penetrates the narrow airways below. Penetrate lower airways like our terminal bronchioles where are they after that? I get trapped. After going to LVline, we know that I am there, what will happen is that the vessels there will get diluted,
The blood flow in the affected area will increase, and then what will happen after that, is consolidation of leukocytes and fibrous leucosides. Our wish is white blood cells and fiber will be present there in greater amounts because there are microorganisms there so there will be consolidation there. What is consolidation? Accumulation of fluid then congestion. What is congestion also? Fluid gets there when there is an infection.
Healthy Diet For Pneumonia Patients
If swelling has happened then That condition is called consolidation of the lungs. and then ultimately What will be the reason? Now what are the symptoms? If a person gets pneumonia, what signs and symptoms will he show or what will be the clinical manifestations? So, the signs and symptoms initially seem as if one has got flu or cold, so the signs and symptoms that are there in flu and cold, are initially the same symptoms.
Then ah severe symptoms show so symptoms. When does chest pain mostly occur in pneumonia? When the person does deep breathing. If there is too much CV, the person will have shortness of breath and cough even with normal breathing. So cough is a very important sign and its end point. In phlegm, phlegm or mucus ah produced ah is thick and thick phlegm. Usually, in the case of bacterial which is caused by bacteria,
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The phlegm that is present in it comes along with it. A. Can be green or yellow. In the case of typical pneumonia, it appears white. Commonly viruses cause bacteria to dry the next fatigue is hepatitis are those who have flu fatigue body may ache lose of appetite then have fever, fever chills, or sweating flu like symptoms nausea, vomiting diarrhea shortness of breath severe cases of shortness of breath.